ABSTRACT Kerala Lakshmi Mills, Pullazhi, Thrissur, is one out of 127 mills owned by National Textile Cooperation of India (NTC). The company is producing 100 % cotton yarn and it is equipped with 42944 spindles. A study on financial performance of the company indicates that the company suffers financial loss over the years. Therefore, the present study aims to uncover the factors leading to the poor performance of the company. The work includes detailed analysis on expenditure of the company based on monthly data collected from the company over the period January-2017 to December-2018. Subsequent measurement of key performance index consisting of utilization of spindles, Material, labor, machinery and energy productivities, HOK and actual production per spindle per 8-hour shift facilitate comparison with the standard performances. Benchmarking of the mill’s performance was accomplished with the standard established by South India Textile Research Association (SITRA) Coimbatore. Through further studies on production stoppage identified the major factors causing production loss using Pareto analysis. Root causes are identified by employing Cause and effect diagram and Pareto chart. The guidelines are also provided for improving the performance. Keywords: Financial Performance, Key Performance Index, Benchmarking, Cause and Effect Diagram.